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Sunday, June 13

  1. file img782.pdf uploaded
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Wednesday, February 24

  1. page Kaposi's Sarcoma edited ... Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8…
    ...
    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).⁴
    Staging:
    Good Risk (0)
    Tumor (T) - confined to skin and/or lymph nodes and/or minimal oral disease (Note Minimal oral disease is non-nodular KS confined to the palate.)
    Immune system (I) - CD4 cells >=/microL
    Systemic illness (S) - No history of Ols thrush (note: Ols are opportunistic infections.)
    No “B” symptoms (note: “B” symptoms are unexplained fever, night sweats, >10% involuntary weight loss, or diarrhea persisting > 2 weeks.
    Performance status > or = to 70 (Karnofsky)
    Poor Risk (1)
    Tumor (T) - tumor-associated edema or ulceration, extensive oral KS, gastrointestinal KS, KS in other non-nodal viscera.
    Immune system (I) - CD4 cells <200 per cubic millimeter
    Systemic illnesses (S) - History of Ols and/or thrush, “B” symptoms are present, performance status < 70, other HIV-related illness (e.g., neurological disease or lymphoma)⁴

    Radiation Side Effects:
    Skin erythema, itching, nausea, vomiting. Tiredness and lack of energy are potential side effects.¹⁰
    (view changes)
    11:30 am
  2. page Kaposi's Sarcoma edited ... Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8…
    ...
    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).⁴
    Staging:
    Good Risk (0)
    Poor Risk (1)
    (Any of the following)
    (Any of the following)
    Tumor (T)
    Confined to skin and/or lymph nodes and/or minimal oral disease [Note: Minimal oral disease is non-nodular KS confined to the palate.]
    Tumor-associated edema or ulceration
    Extensive oral KS
    Gastrointestinal KS
    KS in other non-nodal viscera
    Immune system (I)
    CD4 cells ≥ = 200/microL
    CD4 cells <200 per cubic millimeter
    Systemic illness (S)
    No history of OIs or thrush [Note: OIs are opportunistic infections.]
    History of OIs and/or thrush
    No “B” symptoms [Note: “B” symptoms are unexplained fever, night sweats, >10% involuntary weight loss, or diarrhea persisting >2 weeks.]
    “B” symptoms present
    Performance status ≥70 (Karnofsky)
    Performance status <70
    Other HIV-related illness (e.g., neurological disease or lymphoma)

    Radiation Side Effects:
    Skin erythema, itching, nausea, vomiting. Tiredness and lack of energy are potential side effects.¹⁰
    (view changes)
    11:13 am
  3. page Kaposi's Sarcoma edited ... Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8…
    ...
    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).⁴
    Staging:
    Good Risk (0)
    Poor Risk (1)
    (Any of the following)
    (Any of the following)
    Tumor (T)
    Confined to skin and/or lymph nodes and/or minimal oral disease [Note: Minimal oral disease is non-nodular KS confined to the palate.]
    Tumor-associated edema or ulceration
    Extensive oral KS
    Gastrointestinal KS
    KS in other non-nodal viscera
    Immune system (I)
    CD4 cells ≥ = 200/microL
    CD4 cells <200 per cubic millimeter
    Systemic illness (S)
    No history of OIs or thrush [Note: OIs are opportunistic infections.]
    History of OIs and/or thrush
    No “B” symptoms [Note: “B” symptoms are unexplained fever, night sweats, >10% involuntary weight loss, or diarrhea persisting >2 weeks.]
    “B” symptoms present
    Performance status ≥70 (Karnofsky)
    Performance status <70
    Other HIV-related illness (e.g., neurological disease or lymphoma)

    Radiation Side Effects:
    Skin erythema, itching, nausea, vomiting. Tiredness and lack of energy are potential side effects.¹⁰
    ...
    2. Yuhan KR, You T. Kaposi Sarcoma. Available at: //http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1197815-overview//. Accessed February 15, 2010.
    3. Yuhan KR, You T. Kaposi Sarcoma. Available at: //http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1197815-overview//. Accessed February 15, 2010.
    4. www.cancer.net/patient/Cancer+Types/Sarcoma+-+Kaposis.comwww.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/kaposi.com. Accessed Febuary 16,24, 2010
    5. www.cancer.org/Kaposi Accessed Febuary 16, 2010
    6. http://www.tirgan.com/kaposi.htm.http://www.tirgan.com/khttp://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/kaposis/HealthProfessional/pageaposi.htm. Accessed on
    7. http://umcintranet/uptodate/org Accessed February 18, 2010
    8. Wikibooks en.wikibooks.org TD5/5 adapted from Emami 1991
    (view changes)
    9:54 am
  4. page Kaposi's Sarcoma edited ... Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8…
    ...
    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).⁴
    Staging:
    For epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma, there is no officially accepted staging system; however, in 1988 the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) developed a staging system called the TIS system. The ACTG is the largest HIV clinical trials organization in the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. The TIS system evaluates: ⁵
    The size of the tumor (Tumor, T)
    The status of the immune system, which is measured by the number of a certain type of white blood cell, called a CD4 cell, in the blood (Immune System, I)
    The spread of the disease or the presence of HIV/AIDS-related systemic illness (Systemic Illness, S)
    Within each of the three components of the system, there are two subgroups: good risk (0, zero) or poor risk (1, one).
    The three-year relative survival rate (the percentage of people who survive at least three years after the cancer is detected, excluding those who die from other diseases) for people in the good-risk category in both the T and S factors is 90%. People in the poor-risk category in the T and S factors have a three-year relative survival rate of 50%.
    Cancer survival statistics should be interpreted with caution. Because the survival statistics are measured in five-year intervals, they may not represent advances made in the treatment or diagnosis of this cancer.
    The following table has been adapted from the original system, developed by the ACTG to illustrate the TIS system.
    Good Risk (0)
    Poor Risk (1)
    (Any of the following)
    (Any of the following)
    Tumor (T)
    Confined to skin and/or lymph nodes and/or minimal oral disease (flat lesions confined to the palate or roof of the mouth)
    Tumor-associated edema (fluid buildup) or ulceration
    Extensive oral (mouth) Kaposi’s sarcoma
    Gastrointestinal Kaposi’s sarcoma
    Kaposi’s sarcoma in other organs in the body
    Immune system (I)
    CD4 cell count is 200 or more cells per cubic millimeter
    CD4 cell count is less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter
    Systemic illness (S)
    No systemic illness present
    History of systemic illness and/or thrush
    No “B” symptoms (Note: “B” symptoms are unexplained fever, night sweats, greater than 10% involuntary weight loss, or diarrhea persisting more than 2 weeks.)
    One or more “B” symptoms are present
    A Karnofsky performance status score of 70or higher, measures the ability of people with cancer to perform ordinary tasks.Score of less than 70 means that a person can take care of themselves, but is unable to carry on normal activity or active work.
    A Karnofsky performance status of less than 70
    Other HIV-related illness is present (for example, neurological disease or lymphoma
    Staging is a way of describing a cancer, such as where it is located, if or where it has spread, and if it is affecting the functions of other organs in the body. Doctors use diagnostic tests to determine the cancer's stage, so staging may not be complete until all the tests are finished. Knowing the stage helps the doctor to decide what kind of treatment is best and can help predict a patient's prognosis (chance of recovery). There are different stage descriptions for different types of cancer.
    For epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma, there is no officially accepted staging system; however, in 1988 the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) developed a staging system called the TIS system. The ACTG is the largest HIV clinical trials organization in the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. The TIS system evaluates:
    The size of the tumor (Tumor, T)
    The status of the immune system, which is measured by the number of a certain type of white blood cell, called a CD4 cell, in the blood (Immune System, I)
    The spread of the disease or the presence of HIV/AIDS-related systemic illness (Systemic Illness, S)
    Within each of the three components of the system, there are two subgroups: good risk (0, zero) or poor risk (1, one).
    The three-year relative survival rate (the percentage of people who survive at least three years after the cancer is detected, excluding those who die from other diseases) for people in the good-risk category in both the T and S factors is 90%. People in the poor-risk category in the T and S factors have a three-year relative survival rate.
    Good Risk (0)
    Poor Risk (1)
    (Any of the following)
    (Any of the following)
    Tumor (T)
    Confined to skin and/or lymph nodes and/or minimal oral disease (flat lesions confined to palate or roof of the mouth)
    Tumor-associated edema (fluid buildup) or ulceration
    Extensive oral (mouth) Kaposi’s sarcoma
    Gastrointestinal Kaposi’s sarcoma
    Kaposi’s sarcoma in other organs in the body
    Immune system (I)
    CD4 cell count is 200 or more cells per cubic millimeter
    CD4 cell count is less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter
    Systemic illness (S)
    No systemic illness present
    History of systemic illness and/or thrush
    No “B” symptoms (Note: “B” symptoms are unexplained fever, night sweats, greater than 10% involuntary weight loss, or diarrhea persisting more than 2 weeks.)
    One or more “B” symptoms are present
    A Karnofsky performance status score 70 or higher measures the ability of people with cancer to perform ordinary tasks. A score of less than 70 means that a person can take care of themselves, but is unable to carry on normal activity or active work.)
    A Karnofsky performance status of less than 70
    Other HIV-related illness is present (for example, neurological disease or lymphoma

    Radiation Side Effects:
    Skin erythema, itching, nausea, vomiting. Tiredness and lack of energy are potential side effects.¹⁰
    (view changes)
    9:45 am
  5. page Multiple Myeloma edited ... Plasma cells circulate through the blood and lymph systems, multiple myeloma can appear in a l…
    ...
    Plasma cells circulate through the blood and lymph systems, multiple myeloma can appear in a localized area or may be disseminated anywhere in the body. Therefore, because of its nature, multiple myeloma does not metastasize to any specific organ⁴
    Grading:
    ...
    Multiple Myeloma
    Grade

    Grade
    0 Normal radiograph
    Grade

    Grade
    1 Extensive
    ...
    or osteopenia
    Grade

    Grade
    2 Osteolysis
    Grade 3 Pathologic fracture⁷
    Staging:
    (view changes)
    9:42 am
  6. page Multiple Myeloma edited ... Plasma cells circulate through the blood and lymph systems, multiple myeloma can appear in a l…
    ...
    Plasma cells circulate through the blood and lymph systems, multiple myeloma can appear in a localized area or may be disseminated anywhere in the body. Therefore, because of its nature, multiple myeloma does not metastasize to any specific organ⁴
    Grading:
    ...
    of the bones of patientsBones in Patients with multiple myeloma
    Grade
    Multiple Myeloma
    Grade
    0
    Normal
    Normal radiograph
    Grade 1
    Extensive
    Extensive osteoporosis or
    ...

    Grade 2
    Osteolysis
    Osteolysis
    Grade 3
    Pathologic
    Pathologic fracture⁷
    Staging:
    Multiple myeloma may be staged using the Durie-Salmon system. Although some doctors use this system, its value is becoming limited because of newer diagnostic methods. Recently, a new staging system called the International Staging System for Multiple Myeloma has been developed. It relies mainly on levels of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin in the blood. Other factors that may be important are kidney function, platelet count and the patient's age.
    (view changes)
    9:38 am

Monday, February 22

  1. file Basal2.JPG uploaded
    8:00 pm

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